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Which Military Operations Are Ongoing Routine Activities That Establish, Shape, Maintain, and Refine?

Written by Everett Bledsoe / Fact checked by Brain Bartell

which military operations are ongoing routine activities that establish shape maintain and refine soldiers

If you are studying for the military exam, one of the questions that you should be able to answer is “Which military operations are ongoing routine activities that establish, shape, maintain, and refine?”

Putting down “military engagement” along with “security cooperation and deterrence” will earn you the mark. However, it is important to know what this entails specifically. Therefore, make sure you read through this entire article.

Military Engagement, Security Cooperation, and Deterrence


As said earlier, military engagement along with security cooperation and deterrence involves activities that continuously establish, shape, maintain, and refine.

Military engagement, security cooperation, and deterrence, as one of the three primary military operations, directly influence the U.S’s relations with other nations, international organizations as well as domestic civil authorities.

The overarching objectives of military engagement, security cooperation, and deterrence are:

  • Support instruments of power represented by interagency partners
  • Cooperate with others to protect and enhance national security interests
  • Deter conflict and set conditions for future contingency operations

Usually, military engagement, security cooperation, and deterrence involve a combination of forces and capabilities that align with inter-organizational participants’ efforts while remaining separated. Activities can also be domestic operations to support civil authorities.

Military engagement, security cooperation, and deterrence make sure that crisis responders and contingency operations have operational access, regardless of the U.S’s overseas defense situation. Now that you have the overview, let’s explore this in more detail!

Military Engagement

This refers to the regular contact and interaction of individuals or components of the U.S Armed Forces and those of another country’s Armed Forces or domestic and foreign civilian agencies or authorities. The purpose is to build confidence and trust, share information, and thereby coordinate activities/efforts and maintain influence. Simply put, it is a means of an alliance.

Military engagement is a part of security cooperation. Still, at the same time, it extends to broader areas involving domestic civilian authorities where partners are sought out, and communication is clear to identify areas of interest and tension.

Ultimately, this helps the military make strategic decisions and allocate resources effectively. It also contributes to minimizing tension and conflict.

Security Cooperation

This refers to the DoD (Department of Defense) interactions with foreign defense. The purpose is to form defense relationships that support U.S security interests and allied capabilities for multinational operations.

Security cooperation is outlined in the Presidential Policy under Directive 23: Security Sector Assistance. It is, in essence, an integral component of global shaping activities that work towards communication synchronization.

More specifically, security cooperation can involve employing military forces to support other national power instruments in the form of providing humanitarian assistance or development assistance. Thus, the benefit of security cooperation is minimized potential crisis and early intervention.


This refers to activities that prevent adversary action. The nature of deterrent activities can be traditional, irregular, state, or non-state. Effective deterrence relies on coordinated efforts from security cooperation and military engagement. Thus, joint operations and actions are common. Examples of deterrence can be sustained presence and forward presence.


So, now you know the short and long answer to “Which military operations are ongoing routine activities that establish, shape, maintain, and refine?”

Hopefully, you have picked up the information you need. Make sure you bookmark this article for future reference and leave any questions or thoughts in the comments. Good luck with your military exam, and before you go, do not forget to share this article with other readers!

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